How to set amplifier gains – What is clipping? – Smoke!!

What is amplifier clipping?

Clipping at its root is distortion. It occurs when an amplifier is overdriven and attempts to deliver an output voltage or current beyond its capability. Like the guy at the gym trying to squat 10 plates. It is important in car audio to avoid because we want to have all of our components in the signal path optimized to prevent the onset of distortion. Clipping has disastrous consequences for our speakers.

clipping audio signal
Here is what a clipping and non clipping audio signal look like on an oscilloscope

Why is this important?

Amplifier clipping comes into play into two places in our audio system, our speaker level amplifier and our pre-amp level amplifier. This is hugely important when we set the gains of our amplifier. We want to match the maximum output of the pre-amp level to the maximum speaker output of the amplifier. This ensures the best audio quality from both the radio and the amplifier.

Clipping is important to understand because it has a direct impact on how we set our gains

What does clipping look like?

Audio signal are a series of waves, these waves have perfectly formed tops and bottoms. Clipping causes the wave to no longer have a perfectly formed top or bottom. To show you what this looks like we will use a 30 Hertz test tone recorded at 0db and connect an oscilloscope to the speaker output of our radio. To see clipping we need to increase the volume to exceed the output capabilities of the amplifier by raising the volume.

distortion blows speakers
Distortion does nothing other than destroy car audio equipment

Here we have a nice clean top with a descending arc, and now you will the top of the wave get cut and that is amplifier clipping or better known as distortion. The byproduct of distortion is heat and that has lovely effects on our speaker voicecoils.

testing audio signals
Perfectly formed sine wave uniform top and descending arc, the way an audio signal should look like

Are some radios better than others?

We’ll take it a step further, depending on the quality of the radio or amplifier you may have clipping at different frequencies, a 1 kHz test tone may play fine, but a 30 Hz test tone will clip at the same volume level. Add in the fact that some radios have EQ’s and that creates additional issues.

pioneer avh-4200nex double din radio
Here we tested the AVH-4200NEX both the speaker outputs and the line level rca outputs

To demonstrate this we’ll show a couple of examples utilizing the AVH-4200NEX double DIN radio. Make sure to check out our review here.

Review on the Pioneer AVH-4200NEX Double DIN Radio

We’ll start with setting the EQ to powerful and take some measurements.

AVH-4200NEX Equalizer setting
Here we set the EQ to powerful before we begin out testing of the internal amplifier

We begin our test with the internal pre-amplifier and test using a 30 Hz, 60 Hz, and a 100 Hz test tone to see if our radio can maintain the same volume setting on all three test tones. We have gone ahead and hooked up our oscilloscope to the front RCA output leads and begin playing our 30 Hz test tone.


No clipping

Slight Clipping


30 Hz




60 Hz




100 Hz




Based on that test you can see that the internal pre-amplifier is pretty clean until the last 10% of the volume range. Mind you we took this test with only a single RCA connected with a very short lead.

Now we’ll show you the how changing the EQ curve has a direct effect on pre-amplifier clipping. We set the EQ to flat and begin all of our measurements.

AVH-4200NEX Flat Equalizer setting
Here we set the EQ to flat before we begin out testing of the internal amplifier



No Clipping

Slight Clipping


30 Hz




60 Hz




100 Hz




What does clipping sound like?

Here in our examples you can actually hear when the amplifier clips, it make an almost rattling or slapping sound.

How do I use this to set gain?

To set gain we set the radio to volume 38, this is the maximum clean output of the radio. Volume 38 will also be the volume level that we would never exceed when playing music. Next we connect the RCA’s to the amplifier and turn the amp gain all the way down. We connect the oscilloscope to the speaker outputs of the amp and increase the gain until our wave begins to clip.  Our gain is perfectly set!

setting the amplifier gain
Here we set the gain without clipping the output signal.

In this video we used an inexpensive $89 oscilloscope the DSO Nano, if you are into car audio and electronics this is a must have. Click in the description below for more info and where to get one.

That’s it on what is clipping and how to set your gains. Be sure to check out all the latest car audio and car video gear at If you enjoyed this video click that like button and leave any comments below and don’t forget to subscribe to out youtube channel. We have included a series of 0db test tones so that you can test and set your equipment.

Single Din vs Double Din – What’s the difference?

single din and double din size difference
What is the difference in radio size? We show you the size differences in single vs. double din.

What is DIN?

DIN stands for Duetch Industri Normen, this was a technical standardized opening that all of the vehicle manufacturers adopted. DIN is a colloquial term for an opening size of 180mm x 100mm. This is easily converted to inches by dividing by 25.4, the result is inches.

What is the difference is radio sizes?

What is double and single DIN?

It’s common to hear these question when you are replacing the radio in your vehicle. Luckily the vehicle manufacturers have made this easy. We explain all of the common radio sizes and nomenclature.

Single DIN

Single DIN is one unit of the standardized size, this means that the radio opening is 2″ in height and 7″ in width with varying depth.

Double DIN

Double DIN is two units of the standardized size, this means that the radio opening is 4″ in height and 7″ in width with varying depth. Many radio manufacturers build double DIN radios but you can also stack two single DIN chassis together to create a double DIN.

Din and half

DIN and a half is 1.5 units of the standardized size, this means that the radio opening is 3″ in height and 7″ in width with varying depth.

Half DIN

Half DIN is .5 units of the standardized size, this means that the radio opening is 1″ in height and 7″ in width with varying depth.

Smaller than DIN

Smaller than DIN usually adopts the height but is narrower in width than 7 inches. This measurement is commonly used with DVD players

Based on your make and model of your vehicle it can either support a double din unit, a single din unit or both.

Subwoofer Impedance and amplifier output

Car Subwoofer Packages

Car Amplifiers

Pioneer TS-SWX2502 Shallow Car Subwoofer system

Ohms law

Pioneer Subwoofer voice-coil DC resistance test

In electrical circuits there are two concepts. These concepts have a mathematical relationship between them.

I’ll use plumbing terms as it is easier to visualize these concepts using a pipe. The first is the voltage, in plumbing terms, voltage is the size of the pipe. The other is current or flow, in plumbing terms this is the pressure. These two concepts define the work or wattage.

Ohms law: V= I x R

V = Voltage
I = Current; measured in Milli-amps or Amps
R = Resistance; measured in Ohms

Using this concept and amplifier that outputs 400 watts at 4 Ohms will output 800 watts at 2 Ohms.

Speakers or Sub-woofers

Pioneer subwoofer voice coil cut away

Sub-woofers and speakers have a voice-coil; it is the heart or the device that performs the work. A voice-coil is a tightly wound copper wire that when electricity is applied, generates a magnetic field that either attracts or repels a closely mounted magnet.

When electricity is is moved through this copper wire it does so with resistance (known as Impedance), this resistance is measured in Ohms. The lower a speakers impedance, the easier it is drive.

Amplifier output relationship to Impedance

Amplifiers have a sweet spot in their relationship to output and impedance. Problems arise when a sub-woofer has very low impedance or resistance. The output of an amplifier is measured in wattage or work, work has a byproduct called heat. Excessive heat causes and amplifier to shut down to protect itself from destruction. Heat is the largest factor in the life span of electronics.

Consideration must be taken to factor what an amplifier output is capable of and the load you are introducing. Manufacturers clearly state what their amplifiers are capable of in output and in what situations or configurations. Car audio amplifiers are capable of driving a 4 ohm load. 4 ohms is what most car speakers and sub-woofers are rated at. Most car amplifiers are also capable of driving 2 ohm loads on a single channel.

Amplifier speaker connections

The most common error is when an amplifier is bridged, bridged operation utilizes two of the amplifiers channels and sums them together to provide more output. When an amplifier is bridged, its sees half of the load, or in the case of a 2 ohm woofer, 1 ohm. Most amplifiers are not capable of driving this low resistance as it would cause the amplifier to run extremely hot.

Single voice-coil and wiring options

Example: Paralleled connection

Subwoofer parallel connection

Paralleled configuration means the positive side of one voice-coil and the positive side of the other voice-coil to the positive side of the amplifier. The same connections would be made to the negative side, negative side of one voice-coil and the negative side of the other voice-coil to the negative side of the amplifier.

In this diagram we show you what is potentially a damaging load for most amplifiers. When paralleling dual 2 ohm voice-coils, this creates a load at the amplifier of only 1 ohm. 1 ohm loads for most amplifiers are catastrophic, please check with your amplifier manufacturer before connecting a sub-woofer to the output terminals

Example: Series output

Subwoofer series connection

Series configuration means that the sub-woofers are wire one after the other. The plus of woofer 1 to the minus of woofer 2, the remaining plus and minus are connected to the amplifier.

In this diagram we show you a load that is safe for most amplifiers. When connecting two 2 ohm voice coils in series you create a 4 ohm load. In a bridged operation this is safe for most amplifiers.

Multiple voice-coils and wiring options

In the examples above we were only talking about a single woofer and single voice coil. When we add multiple sub-woofers we can create different loads or resistance on the the amplifier. The sole reason for driving different loads is to optimize the amplifier to the amount of speakers.

Sub-woofers with dual voice coils have two connections and allow for different wiring options. This is especially useful in system design and allow for more flexibility. A dual 2 ohm woofer can be wired as a 4 ohm in series or 1 ohm in parallel. You can see this allows us a ton of flexibility when doing multi-speaker systems.

When we want massive bass the output of two woofers helps create the system we desire. When using multiple sub-woofers we must consider what the amplifier is capable of and the impedance implications that the multiple woofers present.

When speakers are in series, you add the speaker impedances together for the total impedance. One 4 ohm woofer wired in series to another 4 ohm woofer sums to a total impedance of 8 ohms. 

When speakers are wired in parallel, provided they are of equal impedance, you divide the impedance by the amount of woofers. One 4 ohm woofer wired in parallel to another 4 ohm woofer has a total impedance of 2 ohms. Another example is when four 4 ohm woofers are wired in parallel the total impedance is 1 ohm.

3 Dual Voice Coil Sub-woofer Setup Example – 2.6 ohm load

3 dual voice coil subwoofer connection diagram

Example 1: If we wanted three dual voice coil woofers in our system, and each woofer were dual 4 ohm coils we can wire this so that each woofer has its coils wired in series or 8 ohms each, and each woofer wired in parallel to the others so that the amplifier would see 2.6 ohms.

4 Dual Voice Coil Sub-woofer Setup Example – 1ohm load

4 dual voice coil subwoofer connection diagram - 1ohm load

Example 2: In this example we will take four dual 2 ohm woofers. We will wire each woofers coils in series making it a 4 ohm woofer, we will then connect them to the other woofers in parallel, the total impedance is 1 ohm for this system.

4 Dual Voice Coil Sub-woofer Setup Example – 4ohm load

4 dual voice coil subwoofer connection diagram - 4ohm load

Example 3: In this example we will take four dual 2 ohm woofers. We will wire each woofers coils in parallel so each woofer is 1 ohm. We will the wire each woofer in series to the other, the total impedance is 4 ohms.

This allows us to properly match the amplifier with the amount of woofers we want for the desired output. Consideration must be taken to ensure that the amplifier has the output capability to drive these multi-woofer systems. If each woofer is capable of 200 watts and we have three woofers we want to ensure that out amplifier has at least 600 watts of output. It is vitally important that we figure RMS ratings in these estimations as these are real world outputs and ratings. Multi-woofer systems that are underpowered will suffer from poor sound quality and possible damage as you exceed the output capabilities of the amplifier. Exceeding output capability causes the amplifier to clip and has the possibility to damage your woofers. The safer route is to have a slightly overpowered amplifier as it allows for more capability or headroom. This headroom prevents distortion when peaks of music occur and provide excellent sound quality as there is power on reserve for these impactful moments.

4 Dual Voice Coil Sub-woofer Setup Example – 4ohm load

Normal voice coil in good condition

In this photo we have the voice-coil as it should look when it is in new condition. Here you can see the tightly wound copper coil and the copper varnish is not discolored.

Burnt Voice-coil with broken former

Burnt voice coil

This photo clearly demonstrated a damaged voice-coil former and damaged coil. The coil varnish is severely discolored which demonstrates excessive heat caused by distortion. Excessive heat causes the voice coil to separate thereby destroying the woofer.

Burnt Voice-coil with broken former

Broken voice coil

This photo clearly demonstrates the severely discolored coil varnish. It’s easy to see the charred remains and the unwinding.

The bottom line is we want a sub-woofer and it’s amplifier to have very similar ratings. We want the amplifier output capability to match the woofer input capability at its impedance rating. By doing so we ensure that we have a well powered system and one that was designed with excellent efficiency.

Headrest monitor helpful hints

Headrest monitor installation tips

How do I know if my headrest monitors will match up with my vehicles interior?

When purchasing headrests monitors one of the biggest decisions you’ll have to make is deciding whether to purchase universal headrest monitors or vehicle specific headrest monitors. Universal headrest monitors typically come in three generic colors, black, grey and tan. They also come in a generic shape and only come in vinyl. Vehicle specific headrest monitors will match your vehicles current headrests exactly from shape, color, material and even stitching.

How do I know if I can use wireless headphones with my headrest monitors?

The ability to use wireless headphones with an aftermarket headrest monitor is a pretty standard feature known as built in dual channel infrared (IR).

What type of wireless headphones would work with my headrest monitors?

If your vehicle is equipped with aftermarket headrest monitors more likely than not it is equipped with dual channel infrared capabilities, a pretty universal form of transmitting sound, any of our dual channel infrared (IR) headphones would work. If the headrest monitors came factory with the vehicle, they could either be equipped with universal infrared or a more vehicle specific form of transmitting sound known as radio frequency.

How do I know for certain if my headrest monitors work of universal infrared (IR) or radio frequency?

One of the basic tests I recommend people can do to find out if they have monitors that work off infrared or radio frequency is the proximity test. Infrared technology is relatively limited by proximity, meaning the user has to be pretty close to the direct line of sight of the monitor in order to work, if not the sound sharply cuts off. Radio frequency is much less dependent on proximity and direct line of sight, with the ability to collect sound even outside the vehicle.

Can I watch the same movie on each headrest monitor if they both have their own DVD player?

Yes, many if not all of our headrest monitors come equipped with a standard RCA input which you can use to connect both monitors using a single RCA cable. These connections can be commonly found under the car seat so the wires aren’t exposed and remain relatively discrete.

How do I make sure my headrest monitors will be able to play the audio over the cars speakers?

The ability to play audio over the cars’ speakers is a relatively standard feature know as an FM transmitter. An FM transmitter allows you to wirelessly play audio over the cars’ speakers through an FM radio station.

Top Backup Camera System Questions and Answers

What does viewing angle refer to in backup cameras?
Viewing angle determines how much of your rear you can actually view, the closer the viewing angle is to 180 degrees, the larger your view.
What is infrared do on backup cameras?
Infrared lighting on backup cameras allows for a black and white picture at night or whenever the camera is not receiving sufficient lighting for a standard image. Infrared lights are invisible to the naked eye and are usually found on CMOS type cameras as higher end cameras are capable of producing a good quality image while requiring very little light.
What does reverse image (mirror image) mean on a backup camera?
If you were to try and use a standard camera as a backup camera, what would be on the left hand side of your screen would actually be on the right hand side of your rear. What reverse image does is simply flip the picture so what is on the left hand side of your rear shows up on the left hand side of the screen

How do I connect my backup camera so it is on all the time, not just when I place the vehicle in reverse?
Normally when a backup camera is installed it draws its power directly from the rear tail lights so it only receives power when the vehicle is in reverse. If the backup camera is desired to be on as soon as the vehicle is turned on, the camera must draw power from a power source directly found at the fuse box.
Are backup cameras and backup monitors interchangeable?
Yes, many of our backup cameras and monitors are interchangeable. Normally, many of the backup cameras we carry connect using a single standard RCA cable and many of our backup monitors are equipped with standard RCA inputs. However, our more commercial backup camera systems connect through four pin and even five pin connections making them less interchangeable.
Does the monitor or camera determine whether there are parking grid lines in a backup camera system?
The camera determines whether a backup camera system is able to display parking grid lines.

CCD vs CMOS cameras?
CCD cameras are high end cameras that produce a high quality image and posses great light capturing and color contrast capabilities to produce a quality image even at night. CMOS cameras cost a lot less to produce than CCD cameras but usually require infrared technology to produce a black and white picture at night.
Wired vs wireless backup camera systems?
Wireless backup camera systems are for the most part extremely unrefined technology and are highly susceptible to external noise. Wireless backup camera systems are also a lot more limiting than wired systems as camera and monitor are highly dependent on one another and are unavailable with any monitor bigger than 3.5 inches. Wired systems are a lot more reliable than wireless systems as well as more versatile due to the ability to interchange camera and monitor.

How do I connect a backup camera system so it turns on as soon as the vehicle is in reverse?
Typically this is the way most backup camera systems are installed. There are two ways to do the installation.

1st way

The camera usually draws its power directly from the rear tail lights so it only draws power when the vehicle is in reverse. Most backup monitors will turn on as soon as it senses a video feed or posses a trigger wire that can be ran to a reverse light lead (same place as the camera) so both camera and monitor turn on automatically when the vehicle is in reverse.

2nd way

The monitor and camera are power anytime the vehicles ignition is turned. The system will automatically switch to the back up camera when the vehicle is placed in reverse by connecting the monitor trigger wire to the reverse light of the vehicle. The benefit to this installation is that you can switch the back up camera system on at anytime by pressing the power button on the monitor.

No disc errors or unable to read disc errors on flip down monitors

More and more we are seeing issues with read errors on overhead dvd players due to installation related problems. The most common error we see is that installers are over tightening the unit to the ceiling. When the unit is over tightened to the ceiling it causes the housing to distort preventing the laser mechanism and door pickup mechanism from operating correctly causing disc read errors and no disc errors. The way we recommend to install overhead dvd players is to have the unit lightly tightened to the headliner and use loctite to prevent the screws from backing out. This way the unit is actually suspended from the screws and is lightly touching the headliner.

Backup Camera Installation Gallery – Chrysler 300

Removing the panels from the vehicle so that we can run the wires

Pic 1: Here we have removed the panel and this is where we will run all of the wiring to the camera.

Removing the panels from the vehicle so that we can run the wires

Pic 2: Here is a better look at how things look when the panels are removed.

Removing the panels from the vehicle so that we can run the wires

Pic 3: Here is a close up of underneath the dash, here we connect the power to the system. We get power underneath the dash connecting to the main vehicle power.

Removing the panels from the vehicle so that we can run the wires

Pic 4: Close up of the factory wiring.

Removing the panels from the vehicle so that we can run the wires

Pic 5: Here we are drilling a small hole to run the vide cable and power cable to the License plate camera

Removing the panels from the vehicle so that we can run the wires

Pic 6: Here is the camera installed. This is a full frame camera for a great look.

Removing the panels from the vehicle so that we can run the wires

Pic 7: Here we have removed some of the pillar trim to run the cables to the rear-view mirror monitor.

Removing the panels from the vehicle so that we can run the wires

Pic 8: Here we have clamped rearview mirror monitor to the factory mirror (We used a clamp on mirror monitor)

Removing the panels from the vehicle so that we can run the wires

Pic 9: Better view of the relative size of the monitor.

Removing the panels from the vehicle so that we can run the wires

Pic 10: Here we have removed the rear seat and we run all the cabling through the thresholds

Backup camera system – Buying guide

Back up camera system – Buying Guide

Purchasing the perfect backup camera system can often be a bit of a challenge for the first time buyer given the amount of options available. It is important to remember that these various options should be seen as a good thing, as they provide a fully customizable system that can fit your needs best, if you know what to look for.

Finding the perfect backup camera system can be made just a little easier if you break it down into three specific categories:

Monitor Type: The monitor type determines exactly how the backup camera picture will be displayed. The most popular backup monitor types are universal monitors, rear view mirror monitors, sun visor monitors and OEM factory in dash monitors

Camera Type: The backup camera type determines how the backup camera will mount to the rear of your vehicle. The most popular camera types are flush mount cameras, license plate cameras and surface mount cameras. All our cameras come with 18-25 feet of video cable to connect to the monitor.

Key Camera Features: The camera features are really where you can get the most bang for your buck and the category more than likely to dictate pricing. The key features to look for in a backup camera system are viewing angle, CCD camera lens, reverse/ non reverse, infrared lighting, park assist lines and wireless backup camera systems.

Our Top 5 back up camera systems

Safesight SC9003 7 inch reverse back up camera system Safesight SC9004 7 inch commercial grade back up camera system Safesight SC0301-SC3102 Safesight SC0302-SC3102 3.5 inch reverse back up camera system Safesight SC4101-SC0301 Rearview mirror back up camera system

Back up camera systems – LCD monitor types

Universal car LCD monitors

Universal Monitor: A universal monitor is the most common type of backup monitor as it easily mounts on top of the dash of any vehicle. These monitors are most commonly sized from a 3.5 inch through 7 inch screen as anything smaller is hard to see and anything bigger becomes distracting and bulky.

These monitors come with a mount that can be bolted down to the top of the dash but can easily be mounted to a windshield as well with a universal windshield mount.

Rearview mirror monitors

Rear View Mirror Monitor: A rear view mirror monitor will either clip on to your existing rear view mirror or replace it all together. An entry level monitor will virtually have no reflective properties and can not be used as a standard rear view mirror when not in use.

A higher end monitor on the other hand will have a designated 3.5 inch or 4.3 inch screen for when the backup camera is in use while still maintaining a reflective surface that can be used as a standard mirror when not in use.

A replacement rear view mirror is often recommended for higher end vehicles as it provides a clean finish with a well designed OEM look and feel without the need for an additional monitor that will sit in plain sight.

Sun visor monitors

Sun Visor Monitor: If you do not wish to have a stand alone monitor sitting on top of the dash as it hinders a clean look and replacing a rear view mirror will mean forgoing standard equipment such as Onstar or Sync, another viable option is going with sun visor monitors.

These sun visor monitors are universal and fit virtually any vehicle. They typically come in three generic colors; black, gray and tan to seamlessly match your interior.

Factory Navigation Radio's and OEM GPS navigation radio

OEM Factory in Dash Monitor: If your vehicle already has an in dash LCD screen as part of its original equipment it may also be used as a backup camera monitor but not without the help of a navigation interface.

Most of the backup cameras we carry connect using a standard RCA cable, but the problem with most factory LCD screens is they lack the standard RCA input needed to connect that camera. A navigation interface simply allows the factory LCD screen to be equipped with a standard RCA input.

Back up camera system – Camera Types

Flush mount back up cameras

Flush Mount Camera: A flush mount backup camera provides a discrete and clean look that is simply hard to match by other backup camera types. The only downside to a flush mount camera is that a hole big enough to house the camera must be drilled directly to the body of the vehicle.

License back up cameras

License Plate Camera: A license plate type camera is the easiest camera to install as it requires minimal alteration to the vehicles body. It easily mounts the the top or bottom of the license plate and can be mounted on both the front or back of the vehicle.

Surface mount back up cameras

Surface Mount Camera: Usually regarded as the most popular of all backup camera types and revered for their versatility. These systems can be mounted nearly anywhere on many types of vehicles and typically come with a mounting bracket that tilts up and down for the perfect view.


(*All our cameras come with 18-25 feet of video cable to connect to the monitor)

Key Back up camera Features

  • Viewing Angle: Measured in degrees, with 180 degrees being a panoramic view of your rear, viewing angle determines how much of your rear you can actually view. The higher the number the wider your view.
  • CCD Camera Sensor: A high end camera imaging device that is great at picking up color, light, and contrasts. CCD image sensors typically produce a higher resolution image with excellent light sensitivity for a great picture at night.
  • CMOS Camera Sensor: CMOS image sensors are typically much smaller in size often no larger than your finger tip, however due to their smaller size are limited in their ability to capture light. CMOS cameras typically have Infrared LED’s to illuminate the camera area at night so it is visible on screen.
  • Reverse image/ non reverse image: Reverse image is useful for any rear facing camera as it flips the image on the monitor to make the picture the proper orientation when viewed on screen and in the front of a vehicle. What is on the left side in the rear will show on the left side of the monitor and vise versa. A non reverse image camera is useful for a forward facing camera as it keeps the image in its standard form.
  • Infrared Lighting: These invisible lights illuminate the camera area with infrared light and produce a black and white picture at night or whenever the camera is in a low light situation.
  • Park Assist Lines: These lines appear on the side of the monitor and typically help the driver determine depth with green, yellow and red designated proximity zones.

Learn how to install a DVD overhead monitor in a Honda Pilot with Sunroof

Sunroof? – No problem!

We receive a large amount of phone calls asking if you can install an overhead flip down monitor into a vehicle with a sunroof. We decided that it would be helpful to show how to do the installation in a brand new vehicle with a sunroof. In this video we show you the process of installing an overhead flip down monitor with built in dvd player into a 2011 Honda Pilot. This installation was rather straightforward with no surprises and took roughly 3 hours.

It’s all done!

We take you step-by-step through the entire process. Below you can see the finished product. Enjoy and leave feedback!